The Association Between Smoking and the Stage of Periodontitis
Introduction: Periodontitis is considered to be a complex disease of multifactorial origin. While periodontitis is unquestionably initiated by bacteria, several modifying and predisposing factors determine the clinical presentation and progression of periodontitis. In 2017 classification, smoking is regarded as a significant risk factor in the grade of periodontitis. Although the association between the grade of periodontitis and smoking was reported, the relationship between smoking and the stage of periodontitis has not been well-characterized. Therefore, the aim of this study is to determine how the influence of smoking is on the stage of periodontitis.
Methods: A total of 1194 individuals were included in the study. Clinical examination, the diagnosis of periodontitis and staging system were performed by an calibrated examiner. Demographic information and smoking history were conducted with a face-to face interview by another investigator who was blind to the stage of periodontitis. Three smoking variables; smoking cigarettes per day, smoking duration and pack-years of smoking were analyzed.
Results: The mean age was 39.67±10.95. The mean number of smoking cigarettes per day was 13.84±8.71, the mean year of smoking duration was 16.56±9.76 and the mean number of pack-years of cigarette smoking was 12.85±12.71. There was a statistically significant difference between the stage groups and the mean number of three smoking variables (p <0.05).
Conclusion: There was a statistically significant association between smoking and the stage of periodontitis. As the mean number of smoking variables increases, the stage of periodontitis increases as well.