An Overview On The Effect Of Cigarettes Smoking On Gingivae
Omar S. Alkhudhayri, Ahmed J. Hejres, Sakhaa G. Bin-Huraib, Sadeem M. Abdullah, Lujain S. Al-Adalah, Alaa G. Bin-Huraib, Abeer S. Alsaggabi, Arwa A. Alhamed, Aeshah H. Abduljabar, Hassan A. Alshehri, Hussain H. Alghafly, Lama M. Alzain
Background: Diseases affecting the periodontal tissues (e.g. gingival tissue) contribute to a spectrum of multifaceted pathological entities that present with countless clinical features. Local and systemic factors contribute greatly to the risk of developing periodontal disease.
Objectives: The importance of smoking in the development of the periodontal disease, specifically gingival disease.
Methodology: We conducted the literature search within the PubMed database using the keywords: “periodontal disease” and “smoking” and “periodontitis” and “gingivitis” and “nicotine” with dates from 1990 to 2020.
Review: Smoking has been shown to adversely affect all types of periodontal therapy. Additionally, almost all (90%) of cases with refractory periodontitis are from patients who smoke. Many studies have indicated a great reduction in probing depths and bleeding on probing in nonsmokers, compared to smokers.
Conclusion: Dentists are the safety gate and need to be vigilant about the adverse effects of smoking on the health and need to identify potential patients and offer prompt management.