Background: The importance of polymorphic variants and combinations of MMP20, KLK4, and ENAM genes, isolated from the buccal epithelium, in the development of dental erosion and caries against the background of periodontal disease has not been fully understood.
Aim: The aim was to study the prognostic significance of MMP20, KLK4, and ENAM genes in the development of dental erosion and caries against the background of gingivitis in young people.
Methods: An instrumental dental examination was carried out on 274 students aged 18-25 years, among whom 60 students of both sexes were selected for molecular-genetic research, who were divided into three groups: I (20) - caries was diagnosed on the background of gingivitis, II (21) - dental erosion was diagnosed on the background of gingivitis, III (19) - against the background of a healthy periodontium - dental erosion. To carry out the molecular-genetic study, the buccal epithelium was collected, from which genomic DNA was isolated by extraction using the DNA-sorb-AM nucleic acid extraction kit.
Results: As a result, it was found that a higher frequency of detecting a combination of haplotypes G/G_A/A of KLK4 (T/G) and KLK4 (G/A) genes, T/C_C/C, C/C_A/C, C/C_C/C of MMP20 (T/C) and MMP20 (A/C) genes, A/G_G/G of ENAM and KLK4 (T/G) genes, A/G_A/A of ENAM and KLK4 (G/A) genes indicates an increased risk of developing dental erosion on the background of gingivitis, while the significant prevalence of haplotype combinations T/T_G/G of KLK4 (T/G) and KLK4 (G/A) genes, A/A_G/G of ENAM and KLK4 (G/A) genes reflects an increased risk of caries development.
Conclusion: The identification of certain polymorphic variants and combinations of MMP20, KLK4, and ENAM genes in the buccal epithelium of young people has a prognostic significance in the development of caries and dental erosion against the background of gingivitis even at the preclinical stage, which makes it possible to timely form risk groups to carry out preventive interventions.