The purpose of this work was to determine the degree of maturity of the enamel of permanent teeth and to study the content of trace elements in its surface layers using elemental dispersion spectral analysis. The material for the study was the permanent third molars of children from 16 to 18 years old. 51 intact permanent third molars that had not erupted were examined, which was at the stage of root growth in length. Analyzing the atomic chemical composition of tooth enamel, we found out that oxygen, sodium, chlorine, calcium, phosphorus were detected in 100% of the samples. Elements, Mg2+ was in 63.89% of samples, F- – in 30.56%, C4- - in 13.89%, S2- - in 8.33% of samples. The content of Ca2+ was 18.87±6.28 (atom. %), the content of P5+ is 13.45±3.44 (atom. %). The enamel of teeth that have not erupted or only erupted is immature. At the same time, it was found that the strength of dental tissues is influenced not only by the optimal ratio of basic trace elements, such as calcium and phosphorus, but also by an increase in the amount of magnesium, sodium, potassium, silicon and a decrease in sulfur and chlorine content *3, 5+. Thus, this paper shows the advantages of using elemental dispersion spectral analysis in the study of enamel mineralization in the dynamics of the process of tooth formation.